100 word response 1 reference/intext citation Due 7/11/2024


Types of teeth

Incisors are the eight teeth in the front of your mouth (four on top and four on bottom). These are the teeth that you use to take bites of your food. Incisors are usually the first teeth to grow out.

Canines are the next type of teeth to develop. These are your sharpest teeth and are used for ripping and tearing food apart. 

Premolars, or bicuspids, are used for chewing and grinding food. Adults have four premolars on each side of their mouths — two on the upper and two on the lower jaw. 

Molars, or deciduous molars are also used for chewing and grinding food. 

The parts of the tooth are enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp.

Mechanism of Swallowing

1. During buccal phase, the upper esophageal sphincter is contracted. The tongue presses hard against the hard palate forcing the food into the oropharynx.

2. The Pharyngeal-esophageal phase begins as the uvula and larynx rise to prevent food from entering respiratory passageways. Tongue blocks off mouth. Upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing food to enter esophagus.

3. Pharynx contracts, forcing food into esophagus inferiorly. Upper esophageal sphincter closes after food enters.

4. Peristalsis moves food through esophagus to stomach

5. Gastroesophageal sphincter surrounding the cardial oriface opens and food enters the stomach.

How hormones control appetite

Ghrelin and leptin are hormones (chemical messengers) that work together to help your body balance hunger and fullness. Ghrelin makes you feel hungry, and leptin makes you feel full. Ghrelin and leptin work independently and together to regulate your appetite.

Difference between primary and secondary malnutrition

Primary involves missing either sufficient energy, essential AAs, or vitamins and minerals
Secondary results from malabsorption, impaired utilization or storage, excess losses, or increased requirements.

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