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Please respond to this posts. All responses require a 300 word count, 2 resources and a bible verse

Cesare Bonesana Marchese Di Beccaria is known as “The Father of Classical Criminology” ( Economist and Criminologist, Philosopher, and Statesman. ( Cesare Bonesana Marchese Di Beccaria outlaw barbaric discipline, laid the groundwork for the legislative overhaul, and he help repeal the death penalty


Beccaria’s Enduring Legacy in American Justice

Cesare Beccaria’s 1764 treatise, “On Crimes and Punishments,” revolutionized criminal justice. Its influence shapes core principles in the American legal system today.


Spiritual Reference:

Job 31:11 “For this is a heinous crime; yea, it is an iniquity to be punished by the judges.’ (The Holy Bible) (King James Version).

What does this scripture mean to me and how does it relate to the topic?

The meaning of the scripture to me mean that an evil crime deserved to be punish how does this relate to the topic is because Cesare Bonesana Marchese Di Beccaria wanted to stop undeserved punishment for me this mean the worst the crime determines the harshness of the punishment.


Fairness Over Vengeance: Due Process

Prior to Beccaria, arbitrary punishments ruled. Judges held immense power, and accusations often equaled guilt. Beccaria’s arguments resonated with the American founders, facing an overreaching crown. The concept of due process, enshrined in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments (U.S. Constitution, Amendment V & XIV), guarantees fair trials with procedures to protect the accused. The presumption of innocence, a cornerstone of due process, ensures the burden of proof rests with the prosecution (Massaro, 1990). These principles directly reflect Beccaria’s call for a system prioritizing fairness over retribution.

Proportionality: A Shift from Barbarity

Beccaria argued for punishments proportionate to the crime, focusing on deterrence rather than vengeance (Beccaria, 1764). This shift laid the groundwork for sentencing guidelines in the United States. These guidelines consider the offense’s severity, the offender’s background, and potential for rehabilitation (National Institute of Justice, n.d.). While not without criticism, proportionality helps ensure punishments aren’t excessive or cruel, a significant departure from pre-Beccarian systems.

Transparency: Codified Laws

Beccaria believed a just system requires clear and public laws. This emphasis influenced the development of criminal codes in the United States. Today, all states have codified criminal laws, outlining specific offenses and their corresponding punishments. This codification allows citizens to understand what constitutes a crime and promotes consistency in law enforcement and prosecution (Bessler, 2013). Public knowledge of the law empowers individuals to understand their rights and responsibilities, a vital element in a just society.

Rehabilitation vs. Retribution: A Balancing Act

While Beccaria didn’t entirely reject retribution, he argued for considering rehabilitation (Beccaria, 1764). Rehabilitation programs aim to address the root causes of criminal behavior, hoping to reduce recidivism and foster positive reintegration. However, the balance between rehabilitation and retribution remains a point of ongoing debate.

Swiftness and Certainty: Effective Deterrence

Beccaria recognized the importance of swift and certain punishment as a deterrent (Beccaria, 1764). This principle is reflected in efforts to improve case processing times and increase conviction rates. Balancing this focus with due process remains challenging, but ensuring timely resolutions promotes public safety and strengthens public trust in the system. The perception of swift and appropriate punishment discourages potential offenders and upholds the rule of law.

The Death Penalty: An Unresolved Debate

One of Beccaria’s most controversial arguments focused on the death penalty. He vehemently opposed it, arguing it wasn’t an effective deterrent and violated the inherent right to life (Beccaria, 1764). While the death penalty remains legal in the U.S., its use has declined. The ongoing debate reflects Beccaria’s enduring influence. His arguments continue to challenge the legitimacy of state-sanctioned killing, prompting discussions about its role in modern justice.


Beccaria’s “On Crimes and Punishments” remains a testament to the power of reason and reform. His ideas continue to shape the American criminal justice system, promoting fairness, proportionality, and the potential for rehabilitation. While the system grapples with balancing competing priorities, Beccaria’s legacy is evident in our ongoing efforts to create a just and effective system of law.













Bessler, J. (2013). The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria’s Forgotten Influence on American Law. Scholar Works: UB Law’s Institutional Repository

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National Institute of Justice. (n.d.). Sentencing Guidelines.

Links to an external site.

U.S. Constitution, Amendment V & XIV.

Beccaria, C. (1764). On Crimes and Punishments. Online Library of Liberty [invalid URL removed]

Chapter 3 Classical School of Criminology.pptx: CJUS700: Theories of Crime (D03) (

Links to an external site.

On Crimes and Punishments (1764) | Constitution Center

Links to an external site.

 (The Holy Bible) (King James Version)


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